Witwatersrand - Wikipedia

The basin partly covers a continental basement of granitic rocks and greenstone belts containing smaller vein-hosted gold deposits, as erosional relics of a potentially much larger primary source...

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witwatersrand gold deposits from

Witwatersrand gold deposits formed by volcanic rain. The Witwatersrand gold deposit is the largest in the world. Thermodynamic calculations show that such rich accumulations of gold could be linked to abundant volcanism, primitive life and the. get price.

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ORE DEPOSITS 101 - Part 8 - Witwatersrand Gold - YouTube

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Large Gold Deposit Types | ICMJs Prospecting and …

These are: 1) Orogenic type deposits; 2) Reduced intrusion related deposits; 3) Oxidized intrusion related deposits; 3) Carlin type; 4) Low sulfidation epithermal; 5) Gold-rich VMS deposits and 6) Witwatersrand deposits. Of these, the …

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Witwatersrand Gold (108024)

Witwatersrand Gold (108024) Currency:USD Category:Collectibles / Mining Start Price:150.00 USD Estimated At:300.00 - 500.00 USD. ... Two hand specimens of visible native gold in quartz from South Africa's fabulous Witwatersrand gold deposit, from the Reeve Collection. Date: State/Country: South Africa

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Witwatersrand Gold Deposits From

Witwatersrand Gold Deposits Formed By Volcanic Rain. Feb 02, 2015 Witwatersrand gold deposits formed by volcanic rain, anoxic rivers and Archaean life . Quartzpebbleconglomerate Gold Deposits. the genesis of quartz-pebble-conglomerate gold deposits. These various models have resulted from detailed studies of the worlds largest gold province, in ...

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Carlin, Witwatersrand, and Some Other Gold-only Examples

The Witwatersrand deposits match four of the main characteristics of gold-only deposits discussed in Chapters 4–8, namely provinciality, enrichment, segregation from base metals, and H 2 O-CO 2 bearing ore fluid types recorded in …

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The Witwatersrand Basin and Its Gold Deposits - Semantic Scholar

The Mesoarchaean Witwatersrand Basin represents the largest known gold anomaly and has produced more gold than any other ore province in the world. Deposition of the predominantly siliciclastic basin fill began shortly after 2985 Ma in a shallow marine environment, maybe along a passive margin to an old continent to the north (west), and under ...

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Archaean atmospheric evolution: evidence from the Witwatersrand gold ...

A sedimentary model for the Witwatersrand gold deposits, originally proposed by Mellor (1916), was first challenged by Graton (1930), who suggested a magmatic–hydrothermal model. Since then, workers who have studied the ore and host rocks on a microscopic scale have emphasised a hydrothermal model, because gold is typically late in the ...

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Gold - Minerals Council South Africa

The Witwatersrand Basin remains the world's largest gold resource; Gold sales increased by 3.7% at R72.6 billion in 2019 (R70 billion in 2018) Gold production decreased to 101.3 tonnes in 2019 (117 tonnes in 2018) At the current gold price more than half of the South African gold mining industry is marginal

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Witwatersrand System | geology | Britannica

Witwatersrand System, major division of Precambrian rocks in South Africa (the Precambrian began about 3.8 billion years ago and ended 540 million years ago). The Witwatersrand rocks overlie rocks of the Dominion Reef System, underlie those of the Ventersdorp System, and occur in an east-west band from Randfontein to Springs and from the Vaal River in the region of …

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Witwatersrand Gold Deposits - Mineral Processing

The Witwatersrand deposits have produced almost 40% of all the gold produced on earth since beginning of time over 1.5 billion with a B …

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Witwatersrand Gold Rush | The Famous South African …

The continued mining of gold has firmly placed Johannesburg as the economical powerhouse of South Africa. While the ultimate source of the gold in the Witwatersrand reef is unknown, the general disposition of the deposits is recognizable and continuous. The area has also featured dedicated botanical gardens to help preserve regions of the land.

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witwatersrand gold deposits from

ORE DEPOSITS 101. Jan 16, 2013· ORE DEPOSITS 101 - Part 8 - Witwatersrand Gold Desposits Sprott Loading, Chasing the vein of gold "AMRA, American Mining,...

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The impact of gold mining on the Witwatersrand on the rivers …

The next most significant discovery of gold took place when David Wardrop discovered gold-bearing quartz veins belonging to the Black Reef Group at Zwartkop north of the Witwatersrand Ridge in 1878. The gold deposit at Zwartkop is situated approximately 10 km to the north of the main geological sequence constituting the Transvaal Supergroup ...

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gold witwatersrand gold deposits from

Witwatersrand Gold Deposits From. Sep 10, 2002 The new results confirm that the Witwatersrand gold deposits are placer deposits that millions of years ago, ancient rivers carried gold particles, along with sand and silt, into the Witerwatersrand basin then a great lake possibly from granite mountains to the north and southwest. get price

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Gold mining on the Witwatersrand (Journal Article) | ETDEWEB

Gold mining in the reef gold deposits of Witwatersrand takes place today at depths varying from the surface (outcrop workings) to more than 3000 m below the surface. The deepest air shaft reaches 2400 m; deeper levels are served via secondary blind shafts. All levels are worked by longwall mining; to keep the member of supporting pillars small ...

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The source of Witwatersrand gold: Evidence from uraninite …

An in-situ LA-ICP-MS study of different generations of uraninite from the Mesoarchaean Witwatersrand gold palaeoplacer deposits revealed unusually high Au concentrations in rounded, detrital uraninite grains but no detectable Au in secondary, hydrothermally mobilised uraninite. A Au-enriched uraninite-bearing magmatic host is suggested as a significant source …

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Witwatersrand Nigel Gold Mine Near Springs, South Africa - The …

The Witwatersrand Nigel Gold Mine is a underground mining operation. Initial production took place in 1940 and overall output was considered to be medium size. Mine operations consist of 2 distinct underground workings. There are a total of 7 shafts. Subsurface depth reaches a maximum of 1,500 meters (4,921 feet).

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The Formation of Gold deposits in South Africa

The Formation of Gold deposits in South Africa. At a first glance, the Witwatersrand basin, the largest known gold resource on our planet, is not automatically related to ocean research. However, in its 3 billion years old geological history, the Witwatersrand basin in South Africa has been covered by seawater, but experienced also episodes of ...

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The Witwatersrand Basin, South Africa: Geological framework …

Geochemical and morphological characteristics of gold particles from recent river deposits and the fossil placers of the Witwatersrand. Mineral. Deposita (1977) J.R.F. Handley ... Although our findings do not explain the ultimate origin and exceptional endowment of gold in the Witwatersrand, we do provide intriguing evidence for the large-scale ...

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Early income bonanza for funded Witwatersrand gold mining …

West Wits Mining, the Australia-listed Witwatersrand gold reviver that is advancing fast on an initial A$9.5-million capital raise, is the beneficiary of an unexpected gold find that will result ...

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The formation of gold deposits in South Africa

In 1852, the English prospector J.H. Davis discovered the first gold in the Witwatersrand, leading to the South African gold rush and the discovery of much more gold deposits within the basin.

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Gold on the Kaapvaal Craton, outside the Witwatersrand Basin, …

Outside of the Witwatersrand Basin significant quantities of gold have been recovered from Archaean greenstone belts of the 3500 to 2700 Ma Kaapvaal Craton as well as from various occurrences in the 2600 to 2200 Ma Transvaal Supergroup. ... Geographically, these gold deposits are preferentially located along litho-structural features where both ...

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Largest Gold Deposits in the World – Witwatersrand Gold …

It has produced some 2 billion ounces over a century of mining and at an average grade of 15 g/t Au with a current head grade of 6-10 g/t Au and they still have estimated reserves of some 1,161 billion ounces (36,000 tonnes). Production does not come easy though.

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Witwatersrand goldfield, South Africa

Witwatersrand goldfield, South Africa : The Witwatersrand is a large basin of metamorphosed conglomerates that forms the greatest goldfield in the world. It occurs across four provinces in South Africa. It stretches for 350 km long by ...

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[Download] Gold mining on the Witwatersrand. by C. W. Biccard …

The Witwatersrand gold-producing area in South Africa is underlain by an underground Gold mining on the Witwatersrand. book formation also known as the Witwatersrand Basin. It lies on the Kaapvaal Craton, and is one of the world's largest gold placer deposits. The Witwatersrand gold fields of South Africa account for more than a third of the ...

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Witwatersrand | mountain ridge, South Africa | Britannica

Witwatersrand, also called The Rand, ridge of gold-bearing rock mostly in Gauteng province, South Africa. Its name means "Ridge of White Waters." The highland, which forms the watershed between the Vaal and Limpopo rivers, is about 62 miles (100 km) long and 23 miles (37 km) wide; its average elevation is about 5,600 feet (1,700 metres). Its rich gold deposits, occurring in …

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The Sources of Witwatersrand Gold and Uranium: A Continued …

from 1886 to the end of 1987, a total of 41,700 metric tons (1.340 billion oz) of gold and 146,000 metric tons of uranium oxide was recovered from mineralized quartz-pebble conglomerates, quartzites, and thin layers of kerogen deposited between 2750 and 3100 ma on braid deltas and braid plains marginal to a northeasterly trending shallow-water …

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witwatersrand gold deposits from

Witwatersrand Gold Deposits A special type of gold deposit is the Witwatersrand goldmine in South Africa, which is by far the biggest gold field in the world About 40,000 tonnes of gold have already been extracted from it The Witwatersrand goldmine is identified as a socalled mixed type of primary and secondary gold deposits Up to 25% of the ...

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Gold accumulation in the Archaean Witwatersrand Basin, South …

The Witwatersrand deposits are regarded as remnants of a gold megaevent at 2.9 Ga when environmental conditions are suggested to have been suitable for intense gold flux off …

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Genesis of the World's Largest Gold Deposits

Almost 40% of all gold mined during recorded history has been recovered over the past 120 years from a single ore province: the Witwatersrand Basin in South Africa. Today, the gold-mining industry in the Witwatersrand has passed its maturity, but it is set to remain the world's leading gold producer. Estimated resources in the province still represent ∼35% of …

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Quartz-Pebble-Conglomerate Gold Deposits - USGS

another quartz-pebble-conglomerate gold deposit as rich as the Witwatersrand deposits remains highly unlikely because of the confluence of features necessary to create such a large endowment of gold. However, some smaller occur-rences do exist in the United States. Pyritic paleoplacers of sub-ore grade are found in the Deep Lake Group and

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Witwatersrand gold deposits formed by volcanic rain, …

Currently, four models for gold mineralization in the Witwatersrand exist: (1) A syngenetic paleo-placer origin where clastic particulate gold eroded from a Paleo-to Mesoarchean...

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